Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe – Test Bank

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Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe – Test Bank

chapter 2

1. A child’s problems must be considered in relation to the influence of the ____.​

  a. ​individual
  b. ​family
  c. ​community/culture
  d. ​all of these

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Victor is fearful of approaching new situations and often appears inhibited. Victor’s mother reports that she struggles with similar difficulties and he may have inherited it from her. This is an example of ____.​

  a. ​emotional influences
  b. ​biological influences
  c. ​cognitive influences
  d. ​behavioral influences

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What is Causing Jorge’s Problems?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. ​ Etiology refers to the ____ of childhood disorders.

  a. ​causation
  b. ​treatments
  c. ​correlates
  d. ​prevention

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. What is an underlying assumption with regard to abnormal child behavior?​

  a. ​Abnormal development is solely determined by the child’s genetic makeup.
  b. ​Abnormal development is solely determined by the child’s environment.
  c. ​Abnormal development involves continuities and discontinuities.
  d. ​Abnormal development focuses on extreme or bizarre behavior.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. Isabella is 3 years old, and frequently demands attention, overreacts, and refuses to go to bed. These behaviors are considered ____.​

  a. ​common because of her age
  b. ​diagnosable as clinical disorders
  c. ​signs of an overly sensitive child
  d. ​early warning signs of future difficulties

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

6. ​The dynamic interaction of child and environment is referred to as ____.

  a. ​mutuality
  b. ​etiology
  c. ​transaction
  d. ​continuity

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. ​Which theoretical orientation best explains the various behaviors or disorders in childhood?

  a. ​biological
  b. ​psychological
  c. ​family
  d. ​integrative

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. The failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones is referred to as a(n)____.​

  a. ​adaptational failure
  b. ​developmental disintegration
  c. ​discontinuity
  d. ​dysregulation

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Most often, adaptational failure is due to a(n) ____.​

  a. ​single, definable cause
  b. ​longstanding biological maladaptation
  c. ​ongoing interaction between the individual and environment
  d. ​sudden onset of an environmental challenge

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​An organizational view of development implies a(n) ____ process.

  a. ​static
  b. ​unchanging
  c. ​dynamic
  d. ​fixed

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. The windows of time during which environmental influences on development are enhanced are called ____.​

  a. ​sensitive periods
  b. ​critical periods
  c. ​crucial periods
  d. ​necessary periods

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. Because development is ____, sensitive periods play a meaningful role in any discussion of normal and abnormal behavior.​

  a. ​disorganized
  b. ​organized
  c. ​hierarchical
  d. ​organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. Children’s development occurs in a(n) ____ manner.​

  a. ​mostly random
  b. ​strictly organized
  c. ​strictly hierarchical
  d. ​organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. ​The developmental psychopathology approach to studying childhood disorders emphasizes the importance of developmental____.

  a. ​disruptions
  b. ​processes and tasks
  c. ​regressions
  d. ​obstacles

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. A central tenet of developmental psychopathology is that to understand maladaptive behavior, we must consider ____.​

  a. ​one’s genetic predisposition
  b. ​how problematic behaviors develop over time
  c. ​the child’s familial history for maladjustment
  d. ​what is normative for a given period of development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Children’s early caretaking experiences play an important role in designing parts of the brain that involve ____.​

  a. ​planning and complex processes
  b. ​problem solving skills
  c. ​emotion, personality, and behavior
  d. ​fine motor skills

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Brain maturity occurs in a(n) ____ fashion.​

  a. ​mostly random
  b. ​strictly organized
  c. ​strictly hierarchical
  d. ​organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Which statement about neural development is false?​

  a. ​Most developing axons reach their destination even before a baby is born.
  b. ​Synapses both proliferate and disappear in early childhood.
  c. ​Brain connections are relatively pre-determined and cannot be changed by the environment.
  d. ​Primitive areas of the brain develop first.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. Which statement about neural development is true?​

  a. ​Major restructuring of the brain in relation to puberty occurs between 6 and 9 years of age.
  b. ​The brain stops developing after 3 years of age.
  c. ​Primitive areas of the brain mature last.
  d. ​The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum are not wired until a person is 5 to 7 years old.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. Which statement about our genetic makeup is false?​

  a. ​Genes determine behavior.
  b. ​Genes are composed of DNA.
  c. ​Genes produce proteins.
  d. ​The expression of genes is influenced by the environment.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. The problem with family aggregation studies is that they ____.​

  a. ​are difficult to carry out
  b. ​do not control for environmental variables
  c. ​only tell us about the influence of the environment
  d. ​only tell us about chromosomal abnormalities

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. Behavioral geneticists have concluded that ____.​

  a. ​many psychological disorders can be accounted for by an individual gene
  b. ​much of our development and behaviors are influenced by a small number of genes
  c. ​both genetic and environmental influences affect behavior
  d. ​behavior is largely influenced by the environment

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. Which part of the brain is most responsible for regulating our emotional experiences, expressions, and impulses?​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​hindbrain
  c. ​basal ganglia
  d. ​limbic system

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. Epinephrine is also known as ____.​

  a. ​dopamine
  b. ​serotonin
  c. ​cortisol
  d. ​adrenaline

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. Which part of the brain is implicated in disorders affecting motor behavior?​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​hindbrain
  c. ​basal ganglia
  d. ​limbic system

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. The ____ gives us the distinct qualities that make us human and allows us to think about the future, to be playful, and to be creative.​

  a. ​cerebral cortex
  b. ​limbic system
  c. ​brainstem
  d. ​hippocampus

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. The _________ lobes contain the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities.​

  a. ​temporal
  b. ​frontal
  c. ​parietal
  d. ​occipital

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. The ____ gland produces epinephrine in response to stress.​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​thyroid
  c. ​adrenal
  d. ​pituitary

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. The glands located on top of the kidneys are important because they produce hormones that ____.​

  a. ​orchestrate the body’s regulatory functions
  b. ​control the entire HPA axis
  c. ​energize us and prepare for possible threats in the environment
  d. ​allow our cellular functions to relax and rejuvenate

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. The ____ gland plays a role in energy metabolism and growth, and is implicated in certain eating disorders.​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​thyroid
  c. ​adrenal
  d. ​pituitary

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. The ____ gland oversees the body’s regulatory functions by producing several hormones, including estrogen and testosterone.​

  a. ​pineal
  b. ​pituitary
  c. ​thyroid
  d. ​adrenal

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ____ has been implicated in several psychological disorders, especially those connected to a person’s response to stress and ability to regulate emotions.​

  a. ​The HPA axis
  b. ​BZ-GABA
  c. ​Norepinephrine
  d. ​Dopamine

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. What is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces overall arousal and levels of anger, hostility, and aggression?​

  a. ​serotonin
  b. ​benzodiazepine-GABA
  c. ​norepinephrine
  d. ​dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. ____ acts like a “switch” in the brain, turning on various circuits associated with certain types of behavior.​

  a. ​Serotonin
  b. ​Benzodiazepine-GABA
  c. ​Norepinephrine
  d. ​Dopamine

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. The neurotransmitter implicated in regulatory problems, such as eating and sleep disorders, is ____.​

  a. ​norepinephrine
  b. ​serotonin
  c. ​benzodiazepine-GABA
  d. ​dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. Emotions serve ____.​

  a. ​as external monitoring systems
  b. ​to provide motivation for action
  c. ​to promote risk-taking behaviors
  d. ​as a cognitive backbone

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. ACTH causes the adrenal glands to release ____.​

  a. ​benzodiazepine-GABA
  b. ​cortisol
  c. ​serotonin
  d. ​dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. James often appears to be in a bad mood and he is easily frustrated when given challenging tasks. His temperament would be described as ____.​

  a. ​angry and intense
  b. ​negative affect or irritability
  c. ​fearful or inhibited
  d. ​positive affect and approach

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Applied

 

39. ____ serve(s) as a filter for organizing large amounts of new information and avoiding potential harm.​

  a. ​Cognitions
  b. ​Emotions
  c. ​The HPA axis
  d. ​Benzodiazepine-GABA

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. A child who cannot control his temper has problems in emotion ____.​

  a. ​sensitivity
  b. ​reactivity
  c. ​regulation
  d. ​deregulation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. _______ relates to how children think about themselves and others, resulting in mental representations of themselves, relationships, and their social world.​

  a. ​Social cognition
  b. ​Observational learning
  c. ​Cognitive mediation
  d. ​Cognitive development

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. Individual differences in emotion ____ account for differing responses to a stressful environment.​

  a. ​affectivity
  b. ​sensitivity
  c. ​reactivity
  d. ​regulation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. ____ problems refer to weak or absent control structures, whereas ____ problems indicate that existing control structures operative in a maladaptive way.​

  a. ​Regulation; dysregulation
  b. ​Dysregulation; regulation
  c. ​Reactivity; regulation
  d. ​Regulation; reactivity

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Temperament ____.​

  a. ​refers to a child’s unpredictable behavior
  b. ​shapes a child’s approach to the environment and vice versa
  c. ​is not related to personality
  d. ​forms very late in development

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Which phrase describes the “slow-to-warm-up child”, who is cautious in approaching novel or challenging situations?​

  a. ​positive affect and approach
  b. ​fearful or inhibited
  c. ​negative affect or irritability
  d. ​adaptive with negative mood

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. ABA involves the examination of ____.​

  a. ​behavior only
  b. ​antecedents and consequences only
  c. ​behavior and consequences only
  d. ​behavior, antecedents, and consequences

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. ____ explain the acquisition of problem behavior on the basis of paired associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g., homework), and unconditioned stimuli (e.g., parental anger).​

  a. ​Operant models
  b. ​Classical conditioning models
  c. ​Social learning models
  d. ​Social cognition models

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. ____ theorists emphasize attributional biases, modeling, and cognitions in their explanation of abnormal behavior.​

  a. ​Behavior
  b. ​Psychodynamic
  c. ​Social learning
  d. ​Biological

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. ____ models portray the child’s environment as a series of nested and interconnected structures.​

  a. ​Environmental
  b. ​Ecological
  c. ​Societal
  d. ​Macroparadigm

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) model includes a consideration of the ____.​

  a. ​child only
  b. ​child and family members
  c. ​family members and society in which the child lives
  d. ​child, family members, and society in which the child lives

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. Attachment theory considers crying (in an infant) to be a behavior that ____.​

  a. ​serves to keep predators away
  b. ​stimulates the immune system
  c. ​irritates others
  d. ​enhances relationships with the caregiver

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. Today’s research and thinking accepts the notion that many childhood disorders:​

  a. ​cannot be overcome
  b. ​are treatable with the use of medications
  c. ​receive too much media attention
  d. ​share many clinical features and causes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Looking Ahead
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. The process of attachment typically begins between ____ of age.​

  a. ​0 to 2 months
  b. ​6 to 12 months
  c. ​12 to 18 months
  d. ​18 to 24 months

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. Infants that explore the environment with little affective interaction with the caregiver are likely to have a(n) ____ attachment pattern.​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. Infants that are wary of new situations and strangers and who often cannot be comforted by the caregiver are likely to have a(n) ____ attachment pattern.​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. Which attachment pattern has been linked to conduct problems and aggressive behavior?​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Which attachment pattern has been linked to phobias and anxiety problems?​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Which term describes a child’s model of relationships in terms of what the child expects from others and how the child relates to others?​

  a. ​internal working model
  b. ​external working model
  c. ​internal attachment model
  d. ​external attachment model

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. _____ theorists argue that a child’s behavior can only be understood in terms of relationships with others.​

  a. ​Cognitive
  b. ​Behavioral
  c. ​Family systems
  d. ​Genetic

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. The _____ view of child development recognizes the importance of balancing the abilities of individuals with the challenges and risks of their environments.​

  a. ​health promotion
  b. ​family systems
  c. ​attachment
  d. ​psychopathological

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Looking Ahead
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. Discuss the three major underlying assumptions regarding abnormal child behavior.​

ANSWER:   Our first underlying assumption is that abnormal child behavior is multiply determined. Thus, we have to look beyond the child’s current symptoms and consider developmental pathways and interacting events that, over time, contribute to the expression of a particular disorder. Our second assumption extends the influence of multiple causes by stressing how the child and environment are interdependent—how they influence each other. This concept departs from the tradition of viewing the environment as acting on the child to cause changes in development, and instead argues that children also influence their own environment. In simple terms, the concept of interdependence appreciates how nature and nurture work together and are, in fact, interconnected. Few psychological disorders or impairments suddenly emerge without at least some warning signs or connections to earlier developmental issues. This connection is apparent, for example, in early-onset and persistent conduct disorders, with which parents and other adults often see troublesome behaviors at a young age that continue in some form into adolescence and adulthood.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous patterns of behavior development.​

ANSWER:   Continuity implies that developmental changes are gradual and quantitative (i.e., expressed as amounts that can be measured numerically, such as weight and height changes) and that future behavior patterns can be predicted from earlier patterns. Discontinuity, in contrast, implies that developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative (i.e., expressed as qualities that cannot be measured numerically, such as changes in mood or expression) and that future behavior is poorly predicted by earlier patterns.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

63. What is meant by using an integrative approach to understanding factors that influence a child’s behavior?​

ANSWER:   Because no single theoretical orientation can explain various behaviors or disorders, we must be familiar with many theories and conceptual models—each contributes important insights into normal and abnormal development.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

64. Describe how sensitive periods can impact children’s development. Can developmental change occur outside of these periods?​

ANSWER:   ​Because development is organized, sensitive periods play a meaningful role in any discussion of normal and abnormal behavior. Sensitive periods are windows of time during which environmental influences on development, both good and bad, are enhanced. Sensitive periods can be enhanced opportunities for learning but are not the only opportunities; change can take place at other times.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. How can a baby with a difficult temperament influence and be influenced by the environment?​

ANSWER:   This dimension describes the “difficult child,” who is predominantly negative or intense in mood, not very adaptable, and arrhythmic. Some children with this temperament show distress when faced with novel or challenging situations, and others are prone to general distress or irritability, including when limitations are placed on them.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. Discuss how children learn from their emotions and the emotional expression of others.​

ANSWER:   Children have a natural tendency to attend to emotional cues from others, which helps them learn to interpret and regulate their own emotions. They learn, from a very young age, through the emotional expressions of others.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. How permanent are early neuronal connections?​

ANSWER:   This question has provoked different theories and agonized many parents who are concerned about their children’s early development. For instance, if early brain functions are unlikely to change, this implies that early experiences set the course for lifetime development. Freud’s similar contention implied that an individual’s core personality is formed from an early age, which sets the pace and boundaries for further personality formation. To the contrary, This question has provoked different theories and agonized many parents who are concerned about their children’s early development. For instance, if early brain functions are unlikely to change, this implies that early experiences set the course for lifetime development. Freud’s similar contention implied that an individual’s core personality is formed from an early age, which sets the pace and boundaries for further personality formation. To the contrary,​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68.  Discuss the major functions of four major neurotransmitters in the brain and their implicated role in psychopathology.​

ANSWER:    Benzodiazepine-GABA reduces arousal and moderates emotional responses, such as anger and hostility; it is implicated in anxiety disorder. Dopamine may act as a switch that turns on various brain circuits, allowing other neurotransmitters to inhibit or facilitate emotions or behavior and is implicated in schizophrenia, mood disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Norepinephrine facilitates or controls emergency reactions and alarm responses, it plays a role in emotional and behavioral regulation, but is not directly implicated with any specific disorder. Serotonin plays a role in information and motor coordination, and is implicated in regulatory problems, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. Discuss the importance of attachment and how it affects a child’s internal working model of relationships.​

ANSWER:   Accordingly, attachment serves an important stress-reduction function. The infant is motivated to maintain a balance between the desire to preserve the familiar and the desire to seek and explore new information. Self-reliance develops when the attachment figure provides a secure base for exploration (Bretherton & Munholland, 2008). Moreover, a child’s internal working model of relationships—what he or she expects from others and how he or she relates to others—emerges from this first crucial relationship and is carried forward into later relationships.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

70. Distinguish between emotion reactivity and emotion regulation.​

ANSWER:   ​Emotion reactivity refers to individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience, which provide clues to an individual’s level of distress and sensitivity to the environment. Emotion regulation, on the other hand, involves enhancing, maintaining, or inhibiting emotional arousal, which is usually done for a specific purpose or goal.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

71. Briefly describe the three primary dimensions of temperament.​

ANSWER:   ​Positive affect and approach. This dimension describes the “easy child,” who is generally approachable and adaptive to his or her environment and possesses the ability to regulate basic functions of eating, sleeping, and elimination relatively smoothly. Fearful or inhibited. This dimension describes the “slow-to-warm-up child,” who is cautious in his or her approach to novel or challenging situations. Such children are more variable in self-regulation and adaptability and may show distress or negativity toward some situations. Negative affect or irritability. This dimension describes the “difficult child,” who is predominantly negative or intense in mood, not very adaptable, and arrhythmic. Some children with this temperament show distress when faced with novel or challenging situations, and others are prone to general distress or irritability, including when limitations are placed on them.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

72. Provide everyday examples of positive and negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.​

ANSWER:   ​An example of positive reinforcement would be a mother giving a child a special treat if the child behaved in the store. Negative reinforcement would occur when you get in your car and buckle your seatbelt in order to stop the beeping noise. If I got sick on a certain food and was then conditioned to avoid it because it caused nausea, extinction would occur when I no longer pair the sickness with the food and can eat it again. Positive punishment is an active process—doing something to someone like assigning extra chores.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

73. Explain why an integrative approach is important in abnormal psychology.​

ANSWER:   ​Each model is restricted in its ability to explain abnormal behavior to the extent that it fails to incorporate important components of other models. Fortunately, such disciplinary boundaries are gradually diminishing as different perspectives take into account important variables derived from other models. Over time, major theories of abnormal child psychology have become compatible with one another. Rather than offering contradictory views, each theory contributes one or more pieces of the puzzle of atypical development. As all the available pieces are assembled, the picture of a particular child or adolescent disorder becomes more and more distinct.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

74. Discuss the main principles of a developmental psychopathology perspective.​

ANSWER:   ​Developmental psychopathology is an approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood, adolescence, and beyond in a manner that emphasizes the importance of developmental processes and tasks. This approach provides a useful framework for organizing the study of abnormal child psychology around milestones and sequences in physical, cognitive, social–emotional, and educational development. It also uses abnormal development to inform normal development, and vice versa (Cicchetti, 2006; Hinshaw, 2013). Simply stated, developmental psychopathology emphasizes the role of developmental processes, the importance of context, and the influence of multiple and interacting events in shaping adaptive and maladaptive development. We adopt this perspective as an organizing framework to describe the dynamic, multidimensional process leading to normal or abnormal outcomes in development.

 

75. ​Why do family systems theorists stress the importance of looking at the whole family as opposed to one individual’s difficulties?

ANSWER:   ​This view is in line with our earlier discussion of underlying assumptions about children’s abnormal development—relationships, not individual children or teens, are often the crucial focus.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

 

chapter 14

1. ​Though similar in their concerns about eating and gaining weight, individuals with bulimia differ from individuals with anorexia in that they _____, while those with anorexia do/are not.

  a. ​do not eat
  b. ​are within 10% of their normal weight
  c. ​are driven to thinness
  d. ​are secretive about their disorder

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. ​Eating disorders are the ____ most common illness in adolescent females.

  a. ​second
  b. ​third
  c. ​fifth
  d. ​tenth

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. ​Unlike most of the disorders of childhood and adolescence, the causes of eating disorders are disproportionately related to ____ influences.

  a. ​sociocultural
  b. ​biological
  c. ​familial
  d. ​psychological

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Introduction
REFERENCES:   Easy
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. ​Which statement about picky eating in young childhood is true?

  a. ​Over a third of young children are described as picky eaters.
  b. ​Picky eating is more common among boys than girls.
  c. ​Picky eating in young childhood is clearly connected to the later emergence of eating disorders.
  d. ​Picky eating always leads to eating disorders.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. ​Which factor is least characteristic of teens who develop eating problems (Graber et al., 1994)?

  a. ​higher percentage of body fat
  b. ​early pubertal maturation
  c. ​poor academic achievement
  d. ​concurrent psychological problems

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. ​A large-scale survey of students in grades 5 through 8 found that approximately ___ had tried to lose weight in the past 7 days.

  a. ​10%
  b. ​25%
  c. ​60%
  d. ​90%

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. ​Which of the following effects is least likely to occur when an individual is malnourished?

  a. ​a loss of circadian rhythm
  b. ​a decrease in the release of growth hormone
  c. ​dermatological changes
  d. ​lethargy, apathy, and depression

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. ​An individual’s balance of energy expenditure is referred to as their ____.

  a. ​setpoint
  b. ​metabolic rate
  c. ​circadian rhythm
  d. ​net caloric intake

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. ​If fat levels decrease below our body’s normal range, the hypothalamus ____.

  a. ​produces less insulin
  b. ​triggers the proliferation of fat cells
  c. ​slows metabolism
  d. ​releases growth hormone

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​Approximately 50% to 75% of growth hormone production occurs ____.

  a. ​prenatally
  b. ​after the onset of deep sleep
  c. ​during adolescence
  d. ​when eating

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. ​Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorders in childhood are most characterized by ____.

  a. ​the eating of nonnutritive substances
  b. ​bingeing and purging to lose weight
  c. ​significant weight loss
  d. ​purposeful regurgitation of food

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. ​Failure to thrive is more common among ____.

  a. ​girls
  b. ​children from disadvantaged environments
  c. ​adolescents
  d. ​individuals with mental retardation

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​Early onset of feeding disorder is often associated with ____.

  a. ​intellectual disability
  b. ​parental overemphasis on food
  c. ​inadequate care giving
  d. ​poor metabolic control

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. ​____ has/have been identified as a specific risk factor for an infant’s eating or feeding disorder.

  a. ​Difficult temperament
  b. ​Poor metabolic control
  c. ​Parental psychopathology
  d. ​Maternal eating disorders

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. ​A child who eats insects and wood chips is likely to be diagnosed with ____.

  a. ​feeding disorder of childhood
  b. ​rumination disorder
  c. ​failure to thrive
  d. ​pica

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Applied

 

16. ​Pica is often seen in individuals with ____.

  a. ​intellectual disability
  b. ​ADHD
  c. ​depression
  d. ​bulimia

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. ​Pica among young children (without intellectual disability) often remits ____.

  a. ​when the child starts teething
  b. ​after the child experiences a bout of sickness due to eating something inedible
  c. ​when the child experiences increased stimulation
  d. ​once the child has the cognitive capacity to understand that certain substances are not edible

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. ​Pica in the first and second years of life among otherwise normally developing infants and toddlers is likely due to ____.

  a. ​undiagnosed learning disorders
  b. ​hunger
  c. ​exploration
  d. ​underlying depression

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. ​Failure to thrive is characterized by ____.

  a. ​serious digestion problems
  b. ​growth and eating problems
  c. ​overeating problems
  d. ​fear of getting fat

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. ​Mothers of infants with failure to thrive have been found to be ____ than mothers of infants without failure to thrive.

  a. ​more insecurely attached
  b. ​lower in self-esteem
  c. ​older
  d. ​less intelligent

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. ​Studies have found that failure to thrive may affect physical growth in childhood, but does not affect future ____.

  a. ​psychological health
  b. ​physical growth
  c. ​eating patterns
  d. ​cognitive functioning

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. ​Obesity is a ____.

  a. ​chronic medical condition
  b. ​disorder of weight regulation
  c. ​failure of willpower
  d. ​childhood-onset mental disorder

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. ​Obesity is usually defined in terms of a body mass index above the _____ percentile.

  a. ​60th
  b. ​70th
  c. ​80th
  d. ​95th

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. ​Approximately ____ of American children are obese.

  a. ​1 in 4
  b. ​1 in 5
  c. ​1 in 6
  d. ​1 in 7

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. ​Obesity ____ is strongly related to obesity in ____.

  a. ​in infancy; later childhood
  b. ​in infancy; adolescence
  c. ​in childhood; adulthood
  d. ​at any time during the course of development; adulthood

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. ​Obese children are a risk factor for later ____ disorders.

  a. ​mood
  b. ​anxiety
  c. ​eating
  d. ​substance

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. ​The relationship between preadolescent obesity and the later emergence of eating disorders is likely due to ____.

  a. ​biological abnormalities that underlie both conditions
  b. ​the teasing that obese children experience from their peers
  c. ​an underlying psychiatric condition
  d. ​an urge to stop eating

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ​A protein that plays a major role in some genetic cases of obesity is called ____.

  a. ​lutein
  b. ​peptin
  c. ​leptin
  d. ​tyrosine

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. ​Treatment methods to help children who are obese to lose weight should emphasize ____.

  a. ​demanding exercise regimens
  b. ​strict caloric reduction/restriction
  c. ​avoidance of food cues
  d. ​active, less sedentary routines

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Obesity
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. ​For some teens, particularly girls, excessive efforts to control eating may be a misguided effort to ____.

  a. ​punish parents
  b. ​manage the stress and physical changes
  c. ​punish themselves
  d. ​regress back to the oral stage of development

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. ​In the early 1900s, the treatment for anorexia was ____.

  a. ​psychodynamic psychotherapy
  b. ​hypnotherapy
  c. ​removal from home and forced feeding
  d. ​family therapy

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ​Which of the following is not a characteristic of anorexia?

  a. ​loss of appetite
  b. ​fear of gaining weight
  c. ​denial of being too thin
  d. ​refusal to maintain minimal normal body weight

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. ​The DSM-5 specifies two subtypes of anorexia based on ____.

  a. ​percentage of weight loss
  b. ​methods used to limit caloric intake
  c. ​presence or absence of co-morbid depression
  d. ​family dynamics

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. ​In comparison to persons with bulimia, those with binge-eating/purging type of anorexia ____.

  a. ​eat the same amount of food but purge more thoroughly
  b. ​eat relatively small amounts of food and purge more consistently
  c. ​binge only on healthy foods
  d. ​purge more inconsistently

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. ​In comparison to the binge-eating/purging type, individuals with restricting anorexia tend to ____.

  a. ​be more impulsive
  b. ​have stronger family histories of obesity
  c. ​have more labile moods
  d. ​lose weight through diet

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. ​In comparison to the restricting type, individuals with the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia tend to ____.

  a. ​be more controlled and rigid
  b. ​be more obsessive
  c. ​have less mood problems
  d. ​eliminate the food quicker

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. ​Which of the following statements relating to bulimia is true?

  a. ​Anorexia is more common than bulimia.
  b. ​The DSM-5 subdivides bulimia into two types: purging type and restrictive type.
  c. ​Approximately, one-third of individuals with bulimia engage in purging.
  d. ​No specific quantity of food constitutes a binge.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. ​Binge eating typically follows changes in _______.

  a. ​school routines
  b. ​weight gain
  c. ​interpersonal stress
  d. ​family eating patterns

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. The most common compensatory technique after an episode of binge eating among clinical samples is ____.​

  a. ​fasting
  b. ​vomiting
  c. ​exercise
  d. ​laxatives

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. ​Vomiting is used by people with bulimia to ____.

  a. ​prevent weight gain
  b. ​avoid bacteria
  c. ​gain attention
  d. ​act independently

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. ​Young women who have dietary-depressive pattern of bulimia differ from women with only the dietary pattern, as those with the dietary-depressive subtype display ____.

  a. ​less eating pathology
  b. ​more social impairment
  c. ​less psychiatric comorbidity
  d. ​more anorexic symptoms

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. ​Body dissatisfaction and distortion in individuals with eating disorders are less likely to be associated with ____.

  a. ​biases in attention
  b. ​biases in memory
  c. ​selective interpretation
  d. ​problems in perceptual ability

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. ​Which disorder has become increasingly widespread during this age of abundant fast food and obesity?

  a. ​reduced eating disorder
  b. ​bulimia
  c. ​anorexia
  d. ​binge eating disorder

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. ​Binge eating disorder (BED) differs from bulimia in that individuals with BED ____.

  a. ​do not feel a loss of control while binge eating
  b. ​eat over 1000 calories in one sitting
  c. ​do not have compensatory behaviors
  d. ​have lower self-esteem

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. ​Studies have estimated the prevalence of anorexia among adolescents at ____.

  a. ​0.2%
  b. ​0.3%
  c. ​7%
  d. ​14%

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. ​Which statement about gender differences in relation to eating disorders is true?

  a. ​Young men with eating disorders generally have different clinical features than young women.
  b. ​Men show more of a drive for thinness than women.
  c. ​Men show less of a preoccupation with food than women.
  d. ​Men place more emphasis on personal attractiveness than women.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. ​Most commonly, individuals with anorexia ____.

  a. ​die from starvation
  b. ​overcome their disorder completely
  c. ​become overweight in their late twenties
  d. ​restore to a normal weight, but then relapse

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. ​The onset of bulimia ____.

  a. ​typically occurs in late-adolescence
  b. ​typically occurs in mid-adolescence to late-adolescence
  c. ​typically occurs in adulthood
  d. ​may occur at any time after the onset of puberty (no particular time is more likely than others)

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. ​Follow-up studies of patients with bulimia indicate that between ____ of patients show full recovery over several years.

  a. ​10% and 15%
  b. ​​20% and 25%
  c. ​30% and 45%
  d. ​50% and 75%

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. ​Which of the following is a predictor of full recovery for individuals with bulimia?

  a. ​higher social class
  b. ​older age at onset
  c. ​family history of alcohol abuse
  d. ​less weight gain

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. ​The neurotransmitter that has been most focused on as a possible cause of eating disorders is ____.

  a. ​dopamine
  b. ​GABA
  c. ​serotonin
  d. ​ norepinephrine

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. ​Scientists have found biochemical similarities between people with eating disorders and those with ____.

  a. ​ADHD
  b. ​social phobia
  c. ​schizophrenia
  d. ​obsessive–compulsive disorder

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. ​Which factor has been linked to the development of eating disorders?

  a. ​parental supervision
  b. ​sexual abuse
  c. ​single-parent family
  d. ​low socioeconomic status

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. ​Hilda Bruch, a pioneer investigator of psychological processes involved in eating disorders, proposed that the self-starvation of individuals with anorexia was ____.

  a. ​related to their struggle for autonomy, competence, control and self-respect
  b. ​an effort to punish their cold and controlling parents
  c. ​an effort to prevent physical maturation
  d. ​related to disturbed thought patterns arising from exposure to environmental toxins

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. ​Arthur Crisp, a pioneer in the understanding and treatment of eating disorders, considered anorexia to be a type of ____ disorder.

  a. ​phobic avoidance
  b. ​depressive
  c. ​addiction
  d. ​personality

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. ​Which of the following is least likely to characterize an adolescent with anorexia?

  a. ​rigidity and obsessiveness
  b. ​lack of emotional restraint
  c. ​preference for the familiar
  d. ​high need for approval

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.439

 

57. ​Which of the following disorders is least likely to co-occur with eating disorders?

  a. ​depression
  b. ​anxiety
  c. ​obsessive–compulsive disorder
  d. ​ADHD

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. ​A common link between depression and eating disorders may be ____.

  a. ​high impulsivity
  b. ​poor emotion regulation
  c. ​excessive anger
  d. ​inability to focus

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. ​____ is the initial treatment of choice for children and adolescents with anorexia who are living at home.

  a. ​Temporary removal from the home
  b. ​Family-based therapy
  c. ​Psychopharmacology
  d. ​Individual psychotherapy

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. ​The most effective current treatment for bulimia is ____.

  a. ​insight-oriented psychotherapy
  b. ​family therapy
  c. ​psychopharmacology
  d. ​cognitive–behavior therapy

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. ​How may present-day societal messages regarding females’ roles contribute to the development of eating disorders?

ANSWER:   norms and media’s focus on thinness and attractiveness is partly to blame for weight consciousness among pre-teen girls. (Bell & Dittmar, 2011; Nouri, Hill, & Orrell-Valente, 2011). In addition, normal concerns about weight and appearance can either be reduced or increased by the comments of parents, friends, and romantic partners. The effects of the early parent–child relationship on fundamental biological processes such as eating and growth patterns are of paramount importance (Corning et al., 2010).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. ​Why does dieting sometimes lead to overeating?

ANSWER:   Decreasing caloric intake reduces a person’s metabolic rate, which allows fat to remain in the cells so that weight loss is, in fact, impeded. This failure to lose weight sets the stage for a vicious cycle of increased commitment to dieting and vulnerability to binge eating.

Psychological consequences also contribute to this cycle by creating what some researchers call the “false hope syndrome”—an initial commitment to change one’s appearance leads to short-term improvements in mood and self-image, but this hope declines as feelings of failure and loss of control increase (Polivy & Herman, 2005). Loss of control may lead to binge eating, and purging is seen as a way to counteract the perceived effects of binge eating on weight gain.

DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. ​Why is it often difficult to lose weight?

ANSWER:   ​In effect, people who gain or lose weight will experience metabolic changes that strive to bring the body back to its natural weight. If fat levels decrease below our body’s normal range, the brain (specifically, the hypothalamus) compensates by slowing metabolism. We begin to feel lethargic, we increase our sleep, and our body temperature decreases slightly to conserve energy (which is why many persons with anorexia complain of being cold). In this state of relative deprivation, uncontrollable urges to binge are common because our bodies are telling us that they need more food than they are getting to function properly. Similarly, the body fights against weight gain by increasing metabolism and raising body temperature in an effort to burn off extra calories. (Admittedly, this valiant effort is seldom enough to conquer the force of holidays and other feasts.) Because of its responsivity to change, researchers often compare the body’s setpoint to the setting on a thermostat that regulates room temperature. When room temperature falls below a certain range, the thermostat automatically sends a signal to the heating system to increase the heat level until it again reaches the established temperature setting. Human bodies respond similarly to deviations in body weight by turning their metabolic “furnace” up or down (Wilkin, 2010).
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

64. ​Twelve-month old Dean has been diagnosed with failure to thrive. You have been asked to formulate a general treatment plan. What might you include in your treatment plan and why?

ANSWER:   Because the mother–child relationship during the early stages of attachment is critical, eating disorders shown by infants and young children may be symptomatic of a fundamental problem in this relationship (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2014). Thus, treatment regimens involve a detailed assessment of feeding behavior and parent–child interactions, such as smiling, talking, and soothing, while allowing the parents to play a role in the infant’s recovery (Atalay & McCord, 2011; Linscheid, 2006).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

65. ​What are some of the danger signals that an individual may have anorexia?

ANSWER:   ​The refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, a significant disturbance in the individual’s perception, and experiences of his or her own size.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. ​Discuss three risks that are associated with infant and early childhood feeding disorders.

ANSWER:   ​Drive for thinness is a key motivational variable that underlies dieting and body image, among young females in particular, whereby the individual believes that losing more weight is the answer to overcoming her troubles and to achieving success (Philipsen & Brooks-Gunn, 2008). However, such behavior creates the negative side effects of weight preoccupation, concern with appearance, and restrained eating, which increase the risk of an eating disorder (Touyz, Polivy, & Hay, 2008). Disturbed eating attitudes describe a person’s belief that cultural standards for attractiveness, body image, and social acceptance are closely tied to one’s ability to control diet and weight gain.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   How Eating Patterns Develop
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. ​Why are eating disorders in infants and young children often considered symptomatic of a problem in the mother–child relationship?

ANSWER:   A prominent controversy concerns the significance of emotional deprivation (lack of love) and malnutrition (lack of food), especially for failure to thrive. Investigators have argued that the infant with FTT, for example, has been deprived of maternal stimulation and love, which results in emotional misery, developmental delays, and eventually, physiological changes. In one study, mothers of infants diagnosed with FTT were found to be more insecurely attached than mothers of normal infants. These mothers also were more passive and confused and either became intensely angry when discussing past and current attachment relationships or dismissed the attachments as unimportant and non-influential (Benoit, Zeanah, & Barton, 1989). Children who have suffered from FTT as a result of early abuse exhibit poorer outcomes 20 years later than children whose failure to thrive resulted from neglect, lack of parenting, or feeding difficulties (Iwaniec, Sheddon, & Allen, 2003).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Feeding and Eating Disorders First Occurring in Infancy and Early Childhood
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

68. ​Distinguish between the restricting type and the bingeing/purging type of anorexia. What has recent research suggested about the pertinence of these subcategories?

ANSWER:   In the restricting type, individuals seek to lose weight primarily through diet, fasting, or excessive exercise; in the binge eating/purging type, the individual regularly engages in episodes of binge eating or purging, or both. Because studies have failed to find significant evidence of the differences between the binge–purge and restricting subtypes of anorexia, subtypes are used mostly to describe current symptoms rather than a distinctive pattern or course (Eddy et al., 2009; Forbush et al., 2010).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. ​Distinguish between anorexia and bulimia, both in terms of their major features as well as their associated characteristics. In what ways are these two eating disorders similar?

ANSWER:   ​Although the word anorexia literally means “loss of appetite,” that definition is misleading because the person with this disorder rarely suffers appetite loss. Weight loss is accomplished deliberately through a very restricted diet, purging, and/or exercise. Although many persons occasionally use these methods to lose weight, the individual with anorexia intensely fears obesity and pursues thinness relentlessly. The DSM-5 specifies two subtypes of anorexia based on the methods used to limit caloric intake. In the restricting type, individuals seek to lose weight primarily through diet, fasting, or excessive exercise; in the binge-eating/purging type, the individual regularly engages in episodes of binge eating or purging, or both. Compared with persons with bulimia, those with the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia eat relatively small amounts of food and commonly purge more consistently and thoroughly. Of the two major forms of eating disorders afflicting adolescents and young adults, bulimia nervosa is far more common than anorexia. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria listed in Table 14.2 note that the primary hallmark of bulimia is binge eating. Because most of us overeat certain foods at certain times, you may ask “What exactly is a binge?” As noted in the criteria, a binge is an episode of overeating that must involve: 1. an objectively large amount of food (more than most people would eat under the circumstances), and 2. lack of control over what or how much food is eaten. No specific quantity of food constitutes a binge—the context of the behavior that must also be considered. The second important part of the diagnostic criteria involves the individual’s attempts to compensate somehow for a binge. Compensatory behaviors are intended to prevent weight gain following a binge episode, and include self-induced vomiting, fasting, exercising, and the misuse of diuretics, laxatives, enemas, or diet pills.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

70. ​What are both the commonalities among males and females who have eating disorders, as well as the differences each have regarding body ideals?

ANSWER:   ​There is increased recognition that eating disorders are more common among young men than was originally believed. Males also are subjected to powerful media images, although perhaps not to the same extent as females. The increasingly muscular male body ideal may be contributing to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and harmful weight-control or body-building behaviors (Smolak & Stein, 2010). Young men with eating disorders show some of the same clinical features as young women with eating disorders. However, young men show less of a preoccupation with food or a drive for thinness; rather, they want to be more muscular than they actually are and more muscular than the average male body (Olivardia et al., 2004). In addition, young men and boys are more likely to engage in excessive exercising and overeating, whereas young women and girls are more likely to engage in purging behaviors, to report loss of control while eating, and to try to reduce their caloric intake (von Ranson & Wallace, 2014).
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

71. ​Discuss what is meant in the recent research which indicated that anorexia may not be a culture-bound syndrome and that bulimia may be considered a culture-bound syndrome.

ANSWER:   Anorexia has been observed in Western countries as well as every non-Western region of the world, suggesting that anorexia may not be a “culture-bound” syndrome as once believed (Sohl, Touyzl, & Surgenor, 2006). It is becoming increasingly clear that eating disorders do not always manifest the same way in different cultures. In Hong Kong, for example, studies suggest that anorexia may be divided into fat-phobic and nonfat-phobic subtypes and that questionnaires used in Western countries to assess eating disorders may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect the Chinese nonfat-phobic subtype (Lee, Lee, & Leung, 1998). However, the cross-cultural evidence for bulimia and BED outside of a Western context tells a different story. Keel and Klump’s (2003) review of culture and eating disorders found no studies reporting the presence of bulimia in individuals who have not been exposed to Western ideals. Epidemiological data for bulimia in non-Western nations suggest that bulimia has a lower prevalence than anorexia in these countries, and even when it is found in non-Western nations, it is not found in the absence of Western influence. A meta-analysis examining the role of ethnicity and culture in the development of eating disturbances found few differences across ethnic groups for bulimia (Wildes & Emery, 2001). These findings seem to suggest that bulimia is a culture-bound syndrome, arising predominantly in Western regions of the world or in places where individuals probably or definitely have been exposed to Western ideals and culture (Anderson-Fye, 2009).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

72. ​What role do biological factors play in the development of eating disorders?

ANSWER:   ​There is reasonable agreement that neurobiological factors play only a minor role in precipitating anorexia and bulimia. However, these factors may contribute to the maintenance of the disorder because of their effects on appetite, mood, perception, and energy regulation (Lock & Le Grange, 2006).
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

73. ​In what ways may family members contribute to the development of an eating disorder?

ANSWER:   ​From the very start, researchers and clinicians have placed considerable importance on the role of the family, and parental psychopathology in particular, in considering causes of eating disorders. They have argued that alliances, conflicts, or interactional patterns within a family may play a causal role in the development of eating disorders among some individuals (Minuchin, Rosman, & Baker, 1978). Accordingly, a teen’s eating disorder may be functional in that it directs attention away from basic conflicts in the family to the teen’s more obvious (symptomatic) problem. Evidence has confirmed that families with members who have eating disorders report worse family functioning than control families, although a typical pattern of family dysfunction is not evident (Holtom-Viesel & Allan, 2014).
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

74. ​Describe how cognitive–behavioral therapy might be used to treat an individual with an eating disorder.

ANSWER:   The goals of CBT are to modify abnormal cognitions on the importance of body shape and weight and to replace efforts at dietary restraint and purging with more normal eating and activity patterns (Poulsen et al., 2014; Touyz et al., 2008). CBT for the treatment of bulimia includes several components. Patients are first taught to self-monitor their food intake and bingeing and purging episodes, as well as any thoughts and feelings that trigger these episodes. This is combined with regular weighing; specific recommendations on how to achieve desired goals, such as the introduction of avoided foods and meal planning, designed to normalize eating behavior and curb restrictive dieting; cognitive restructuring aimed at habitual reasoning errors and underlying assumptions relevant to the development and maintenance of the eating disorder; and regular review and revision of these procedures to prevent relapse.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

75. ​What interventions are used for bulimia, and are they successful?

ANSWER:   ​As noted, the most effective current therapies for bulimia involve CBT delivered individually or by involving the family unit (Rutherford & Couturier, 2007; Wilson et al., 2007). Cognitive–behavioral therapists change eating behaviors by rewarding or modeling appropriate behaviors, and by helping patients change distorted or rigid thinking patterns that may contribute to their obsession. CBT has become the standard treatment for bulimia, and it forms the theoretical base for much of the treatment for anorexia (Chavez & Insel, 2007). This evidence-based treatment is appropriate for patients whose age does not mandate family therapy and whose symptoms are moderate to severe.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Eating Disorders of Adolescence
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

 

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